Chemerin is type of protein in human body that is coded as RARRES2 gene. These stimulate dendritic cells to sites of inflammation. In human body, chemerin-mRNA generates in white adipose tissues, lungs, and liver. It works in adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake and hence classifies as an adipokine, along with apelin, leptin, and resistin.
Medical studies over the years have shown a positive relation between chemerin and metabolic syndrome which ultimately lead to obesity-related disorders, inflammation, cardiovascular disorders and type-2 diabetes. In case this increases on the body the metabolic rate reduces that enhances storage of fat in body.
Identification and processing of this adipokine protein:
Medical scientists originally identified this in 1997 as a retinoid-responsive gene present in psoriatic skin lesions. But, it was only six years ago that experimental evidence proved the biological function of this protein. A key finding was its detection in inflammatory fluids such synovial found in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. Medical advancement also traced its presence in ascites, fond in ovarian cancer. There are three levels of its concentration in human body: Highest Level- White adipose tissue, liver. Moderate Level- Lungs, Brown adipose tissue, Low Level- Kidney, ovary, and heart.
Physiological effects of chemerin include the following-
Obesity: Obesity is a condition of excess adipose tissue that develops as a result of diet, behavorial, environmental and genetic reasons. Fat deposits due to an imbalance in calorie intake and expenditure- more calories consumed than burned. It is a significant risk of developing hypertension. Previously, adipokine or fat cells were believed to be only found in visceral fat stores. But recent studies show that these PVAT also produces it.
Chemerin is one of those peptides that are secreted from these visceral fat cells and the liver. It is an active biomarker for adiposity, and its levels go down radically with weight and fat loss.
Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin in human body helps in keeping the blood sugar level low. Being a chemoattractant and an adipokine, it plays a chief role in pathogenesis in insulin resistance. Both insulin resistance and subclinical inflammation are fundamental signs of Type 2 Diabetes. Thus, chemerin-protein is clearly a link between both of these factors in medical and laboratory tests.
Chemerin: An underlying linkage between Type 2 Diabetes and obesity
Both of these (Diabetes and obesity) have reached epidemic levels and bear a maximum of a person’s annual income, both in developing and developed countries. Thus, the link between these two has been a topic for prolonged debate, but the underlying linkage has not been fully realized yet. However, independent lines of research and medical investigation have recently found inflammation and adipokines as a major cause for both.
It interacts with cell surface of cognate (chemokine-like receptor 1) and regulates adipogenesis, inflammation and glucose metabolism. Obesity brings about an increase in the level of chemerin-protein which probably is a primary reason of Type 2 Diabetes in human.
The physiological effects of chemerin are undoubtedly one of the most revolutionary discoveries in medical science. It only anticipates further innovations in this line.